What is topology?All types of topology with examples.

What is topology?All types of topology with detail and examples.

Network topology diagram

what is topology


  1. What is topology?
  2. What are the basic types of physical topology?
  3. Types of topology
  4. Bus topology
  5. Star topology
  6. Ring topology
  7. Tree topology
  8. Mesh topology
  9. Hybrid topology

What is topology?

What is topology? Here is your answer. Everyone wants to know about what is topology so, A network topology is the interconnection pattern of network elements. The network topology may be physical, mapping hardware configuration, or logical.

These are connected so that data travel around the network. There are many topologies. These are divided on the basis of their working and configuration.
It means that any of them can be combined. However, each topology has a different standard. There are two types of topology.

Physical topology:
Physical topology refers to the physical design of the network.
Logical topology
Logical topology refers to how data is handled within the network regardless of its physical topology.

A local area network (LAN) is a good example both a logical and physical topology. In LAN all the terminals are linked together. The mapping of this interconnection is the physical topology. However, data flow determines the logical topology of the network.

There are  basic types of physical topology,

  1. Bus topology
  2. Star topology
  3. Ring topology
  4. Tree topology
  5. Mesh topology
  6. Hybrid topology

Types of Network Topology
Network Topology is the description of a network arrangement, connecting various nodes through lines of connection. It can be from the sender or receiver.

What is Bus Topology:

In bus topology network all computer and network device is connected to a single cable. This cable has exactly two endpoints, then it is called Linear Bus topology.
It transmits data only in one direction. Every device is connected to a single cable.

what is bus topology

Advantages of bus topology:

  • It is cost effective.
  • Less cable is required for network topology.
  • Use in small networks.
  • It is easy to understand.
  • It is easy to setup
  • Easy to expand joining two cables together.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology:

  • The main cable fails then the whole network fails.
  • If network traffic is heavy, decrease network efficiency.
  • Cable length has limitations.
  • It’s working is slower than the ring topology.

What is Ring Topology:

It is called a ring topology because it forms a ring. As each computer is connected to another computer.The last one connected to the first.Exactly two neighbors for each device.

A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology. Repeater gives strength to signal. The transmission is unidirectional.
It can be made Dual Ring Topology or bidirectional by having two connections between each Network Node.
In Dual Ring Topology, data flow in the opposite direction in them.

Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup, to keep the network up. Data is transfer in a sequential manner, bit by bit. Data transmit pass through each node of the network, till the destination node.

what is ring topology

Advantages of Ring Topology

  • High traffic or by adding more nodes cannot affect the network.
  • As only the nodes having tokens can transmit data.
  • Less expensive to install and expand.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology:

  • The main cable fails then the whole network fails.
  • If network traffic is heavy, decrease network efficiency.
  • Cable length has limitations.
  • It’s working is slower than the ring topology.

What is Star Topology:(what is topology)

In this type of topology, all the computers are connected to a central node called hub through a cable.
Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub. Hub acts as a repeater. It increases the strength of the data flow.
It is used with twisted pair, Optical Fiber or coaxial cable.

what is star topology

Advantages of Star Topology:

  • Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.
  • Hub can be upgraded easily.
  • Very easy to troubleshoot.
  • Very easy to set up and modify.
  • Only fail node is affected when any failure, the rest of the nodes can work smoothly.

Disadvantages of Star Topology:

  • The very high cost of installation.
  • Very expensive to use.
  • If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped.
  • Its performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity.

What is topology?

Types of topology


What is Mesh Topology:

This topology is a point-to-point connection to all other nodes or devices. All the network nodes are connected to each other. There are two techniques to transmit data over the Mesh topology:

What is mesh topology
In routing, the nodes have a routing logic, according to the network requirements. Like routing logic to direct the data to reach the destination using the shortest distance.

Routing logic has information about the broken links, and it avoids those nodes, etc.
In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all the network nodes.No need of routing logic. The network is robust, it can lose data. But it leads to unwanted load over the network. Mesh topology in computer networks.
Types of Mesh Topology
Partial Mesh Topology:
In this topology, some of the systems are connected to all other devices but some not.
Full Mesh Topology :
Each and every node or device are connected to each other nodes and devices.

Advantages of Mesh Topology:

  • Each connection can carry its own data load.
  • It is robust.
  • Easy in troubleshooting.
  • It provides security and privacy.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:

  • The installation and configuration are difficult.
  • High Cable cost.
  • Bulk wiring.

What is topology (tree topology):

It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology.
It is best for workstations located in groups. It is used in WAN(Wide Area Network).

What is tree topology

Advantages of Tree Topology:

  • Extension of bus and star topology.
  • The expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
  • It is easily managed and maintainable.
  • The error detection is easy.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology:

  • Heavily cable is used.
  • High Cost.
  • If more nodes are added maintenance is very difficult.
  • Central hub fails, cause network fails.

What is topology(Hybrid Topology):

It is a combination of two or more different types of topology.

What is hybrid topology
If an office in one department is using ring topology can connect with another department using the star topology.
This type of connecting known as Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).

Advantages of Hybrid Topology: 

  • Reliable as Error detecting.
  • Troubleshooting is very easy.
  • It is very effective and flexible
  • Scaleable as size can be increased easily.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology:

  • Very complex in design.
  • Its cost is high for setup.


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