What is TCP IP model with history

What is TCP IP model with history


  • What is tcp ip model
  • History of TCP IP model.
  • How TCP IP work?
  • Set of rules and procedures for TCP/IP model
  • Role of TCP
  • Role of IP
  • 4 Layers of TCP/IP model
  • Application layer
  • Transport layer
  • Network layer
  • Physical layer




What is TCP IP model with history:

DARPA stands for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. It is the research branch of the U.S. Department of Defense. In 1970, DARPA created the TCP/IP model for use in ARPANET. It was used in a wide area network (WAN) over the internet. In early time TCP/IP was used in the UNIX operating system. But with the passage of time now TCP/IP uses in any operating system.
TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is the language that helps the computer to access the internet. It is protocols design to establish a network of networks for a host to access the internet easily.
TCP/IP is not controlled by any single company. So, internet protocol can be modified easily at any time. It works with all kinds of operating systems.
TCP/IP is also suitable for all kinds of computer networks and hardware. It is responsible for data connectivity and data transmission. It also includes functions such as addressing, mapping and acknowledgment.TCP/IP has four layers. These layers are slightly different from the OSI model layer.
Almost all computers support TCP/IP. It is not a single networking protocol, but two protocols such as TCP and IP.

How TCP IP model work?

There are two things needed for communication.

  • A message to transmit.
  • Reliable means to transmit the message.

So the TCP layer handles the message to be transmitted. This message is usually broken down into small units. These small units are known as packets. Further, these packets are transmitted over the network.
These packets are received by the corresponding TCP layer in the receiver and reassembled into the original message.
IP works on the transmission portion.  IP assigns unique IP address every active recipient on the network.

Set of rules and procedures for ( What is TCP IP model ):

It specifies how the data is exchanged over the internet with end-to-end communications. It identifies how data is broken into the packets, address, route and reaching a destination.
It requires small central management, which helps to make networks more reliable. In this way, it has the ability to recover failure data automatically.

Role of TCP:

  • It defines how channels for communication create an application over a network.
  • It also manages to assemble small packets before the transmission over the internet. It reassembles all packets in the right order at the destination address.

Role of IP:

  • IP(internet protocol) defines address and route for each packet to reaches the right destination.
  • IP checks on Each gateway computer on the networks. Further, it determines where to forward this message.


4 Layers of TCP IP model:

Many questions arise about What is TCP IP model and how many layers.TCP/IP  is different in working from the OSI Model. All the functions of TCP IP layers are divided into four layers. Each layer has its own protocols. Here are the four layers of TCP IP.

Application layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Physical layer



Application layer:

The first layer is the application layer. This layer provides the applications a standardized data exchange. The protocols for these layers are given below:

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
    This layered work with all these protocols.


Transport layer:

The transport layer is the second layer of the TCP/IP model. The basic work of the transport layer is to maintain end-to-end communications. The protocols for these layers are given below:

  • TCP
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    These two protocols are used for the transport layer in TCP/IP.


Network layer:

The third layer of TCP IP is a network layer. It is also known as the internet layer. The network layer deals with packets. The following are protocols uses in this layer.

  • IP
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)


Physical layer:


tcp ip physical layer

The last layer is the physical layer. This layered work with the following protocols.

  • Ethernet for LAN( local area networks)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

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