Internal parts of cpu

What is CPU with all Internal parts of CPU?


What is CPU?

Internal parts of CPU


Internal parts of cpu


What is CPU?

Before study about internal parts of cpu. CPU is a core component that makes a computer a computer, but it is not the computer itself. it is the brain of the computer. it is a small computer chip on the main circuit board, also called the motherboard of the computer.

The CPU is the brain of the computer. It receives the data as input, executes the instructions, and produces the information as output. It directly communicates with input/output devices. These input/output devices are used in sending and receiving the data to and from the CPU. CPU also has an internal bus, called backside-bus for the communication with the internal cache memory. The main bus which is used to transfer the data to and from CPU, chipset, AGP socket, and memory is called the front-side bus.  

CPU contains registers, which are internal memory units. These registers contain data, instructions, counters, and addresses which are used in Arithmetic and logic unit’s information processing.

The Internal parts of cpu rely on the system clock, memory, secondary storage, data buses, and address buses to function properly.


Internal parts of CPU:

The three main components of a CPU are arithmetic logic unit, control unit, and cache. These components are integrated together to form a single microprocessor that is mounted on the computer’s motherboard.

  1. Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU): It handles arithmetic and logic is the real place in the computer where the actual execution of instructions takes place. It can be categorized into two sections according to their functions.
  • Arithmetic section: It is used to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on data.
  • Logic section: It is used to perform logical operations like comparison between two values. For example, “<“, “>”, “=”.


  1. Control Unit: Its function is to extract the instruction from the memory and execute them after decoding. It controls all the operations of the computer. For example, it takes the instructions and stores them into memory. it sends the instruction to ALU for processing. It takes the result from ALU and sends it to output devices. It can also store the output results in memory.

It performs the following four functions for executing the instructions of a computer program.

  • Fetching: Fetches instructions from memory
  • Decoding: Decodes the instructions.
  • Data fetching: Obtains data from memory if needed.
  • Execution: sends the instruction to ALU for performing suitable actions on instructions.
  1. Registers: A register is a temporary storage area in ALU. It holds the data which is being processed by the CPU. Whenever the instructions are fetched from memory they are stored on registers for a small period of time. ALU has registers like AX, BX, CX, DX, etc. The size of a register cab is 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits or more.

You can read more about:

What are computer processing devices?

What are Types of Computer Buses.